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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-36

Blood glucose management in gestational diabetes: A clinician's review

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Chellaram Diabetes Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Kumaran S Suganthi
Chellaram Diabetes Institute, Lalani Quantum, Pune Bangalore Highway, Bavdhan, Pune - 411 021, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cdrp.cdrp_2_21

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The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been increasing globally and in India too, because of urbanization and the increasing occurrence of obesity. The management of GDM poses a clinical challenge, and this article focuses on its diagnosis and treatment. In India, screening of all pregnant women is recommended at the first antenatal visit and then repeat screening at 24–28 weeks of gestation if the initial screen is normal. Early intervention with counseling, glucose monitoring, diet, and exercise to achieve good glucose control could reduce both the maternal and fetal complications associated with hyperglycemia in pregnancy. The majority of cases of GDM may be managed by lifestyle modifications alone. Metformin may be prescribed as an alternative to insulin as per certain guidelines, though insulin remains the cornerstone of pharmacotherapy. Long-acting insulin detemir and short-acting insulin analogs such as insulin lispro or aspart are safe in pregnancy and help with control of blood glucose. Good glycemic control, achieved by lifestyle measures, monitoring, and medications when needed, may help achieve the goal of a successful pregnancy outcome.

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